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Table Saws – The 4 Main Types Explained

A table saw is the most common piece of large woodworking equipment found in shops around the world. Table saw are very versatile, and if you can only have one piece of woodworking equipment, a rigid table saw is probably the best one to choose. These more portable types of table saws offer versatility and ease of use with the convenience of portability.

There are four main classes of table saws: contractor saws, benchtop table saws, cabinet saws and hybrid saws. When deciding between portable and floor standing table saws, the main thing you’re trying to do is balance durability with portability. Since most portable types of equipment do not have the same durability features, they typically do not last as long as their less portable counterparts.

In the modern table saw, regardless of type, the depth of a cut is changed by adjusting the distance that the blade sticks out above the table surface. The more the blade protrudes from the table, the deeper the cut that is made in the material will be. Conversely, the less a blade protrudes from the table, the more shallow the cut that is made in the material being cut, will be.

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In older table saw, altering the angle of the blade was used to increase or decrease the depth of the cut. Nowadays, there is still an adjustable angle control, but this is used merely to adjust the angle at which the material is cut, and is not used to decrease or increase the depth of cut being made.

Contractor Table Saws

They are heavy, large and come with a base or stand that often also has wheels for increased mobility. The motor hinges off the rear of a contractor table saw and drives the saw blade back and forth by a single belt that uses a 1 to 2 horsepower induction type of motor.This type of table saw is often used by homeowners and hobbyists for the standard electrical requirements and the low cost of operation. Because the contractor table saw motor hangs off the rear of the saw on a pivot, dust collected can be a problem when compared with a cabinet saw.

Benchtop Table Saws

They are very lightweight and are designed to be operated while they sit atop a table or other level supportive surface. These types of table saws generally have a direct drive that does not involve pulleys or a v-belt to drive the saw.One of the advantages of using a benchtop table saw are that they are very lightweight and can be moved by one person. This makes them wonderful saws for taking from place to place. The down side, however, is that these compact table saws are made from somewhat less durable material. These are the least capable as well as the least expensive models of table saws available today.

Benchtop table saws are perfectly capable of handling most cutting jobs, it’s just that they will not be able to perform as well over time, or for specific types of cutting jobs. For example, when cutting using a miter edge, a benchtop table saw may have problems keeping the miter edge straight.

Cabinet Table Saws

They are heavy and incorporate a large amount of steel and cast iron in order to increase accuracy and minimize vibration. A cabinet table saw is characterized by having a closed cabinet case and generally have induction motors in the 3 to 5 horsepower range.Cabinet table saws typically require greater electricity usage, and most likely a 220V outlet must be installed if there is not one already. Cabinet table saws tend to have several advantages over contractor table saws. For one, there is improved dust collection on most cabinet table saws. Also, cabinet saws tend to be easier to adjust in general.

European cabinet saws tend to be more complex in design whereas the cabinet saws used in the United States, Canada and China are very much the same design that they’ve been made after since 1937. The Delta Unisaw has evolved some since 1937, yet the same basic frame style is still used today.

Hybrid Table Saws & Accessories

In addition to the four main types of table saws, there are also hybrid table saws that are designed to compete in the market with the more expensive contractor table saws while offering some of the advantages of cabinet table saws at a much lower price.Most hybrid table saws offer an enclosed cabinet area. Some hybrid saws have cabinet-mounted trunnions and some have table-mounted trunnions. For the most part, hybrid table saws are lighter than cabinet saws and heavier than contractor saws.

There are many table saw accessories that can expand the usability of any type of table saw. There are rip fences. These may need to be replaced form time to time, but most table saws do come with a rip fence. A rip fence is the guide that cutting materials are slid along.

Another useful thing to have is a miter gauge. Miter gauges fit into miter grooves that run parallel to the plan of the blade. These miter gauges can be adjusted to different angles in order to cut mitered edges on various materials.

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Unknown Facts About Reverse Osmosis

You may or may not be aware of it, but reverse osmosis systems are not as uncommon and complicated as you think. Any mechanism that makes use of external pressure and a semi-permeable membrane to segregate substances having diverse concentrations are broadly categorized as reverse osmosis (RO) systems. If you want to know what it does and whether it will be any good for home use and keeping an aquarium, here is some information that will help: Osmosis vs. reverse osmosis, Understanding reverse osmosis systems is so much easier if you know what osmosis is. On the one hand, osmosis relies only on osmotic pressure to keep substances of different concentrations apart, with the semi-permeable membrane acting as a filter. The direction of water movement across the membrane is from low solute concentration to high concentration.

Reverse osmosis systems, on the other hand, work the opposite direction, which is from high to low solute concentration. The semi-permeable membrane then keeps the solutes on one side, allowing the purer solvent to pass through. Another distinct characteristic of these systems is the use of external force to move the solution across the membrane. Applications of reverse osmosis in households – The process of RO has its widespread use in desalination and renal replacement therapy. Countries with access to modern water utilities have potable water delivered to households with the help of water treatment processes, one of which is RO. For the rest of the world, however, there are home appliances designed to make tap water safe for cooking and drinking. Although there are various filtration and purifying systems available through direct selling, the market share of devices using this process is rapidly growing.

In addition to giving you clean drinking water, reverse osmosis also helps you achieve a healthy aquarium. Water straight from your plumbing systems has been treated with chemicals, and using it to fill your tank can be toxic to fish, plants, and live corals in it. For reef tanks (which are more sensitive to imbalances in water chemistry than standard fish tanks) RO aids in achieving stability. Aquarists find reverse osmosis devices useful in conditioning the insides of a reef tank to achieve a close similarity with natural marine environment. These devices also clear out contaminants that cause rapid algae growth. If you have an aquarium at home, you should know that excessive algae adversely affect the health of organisms inside your tank.

The pros and cons of using reverse osmosis systems – The main benefit of using these devices is that they don’t use chemicals to treat water, so they don’t change its taste, neither do they cause abrasion and sedimentation in plumbing and tanks. In addition, they help you save time and money as they don’t require much power and frequent clean-ups. On the downside, a good percentage of the water used by reverse osmosis devices is wasted and goes directly to your septic tank. Also, the notion that they are “purifiers” is only partly true, as they don’t have the capacity to disinfect water from bacteria. Aside from these, they may also remove helpful substances, like calcium and magnesium. RO devices are effective at filtration and less damaging to the environment. But with these benefits, there are also some setbacks that you have to consider before buying one.

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All About Reverse Osmosis

In the United States, reverse osmosis water filters are some of the most common household filtrations systems available. Reverse osmosis water filters are an extremely effective form of filtration. They are used in military installations where clean water isn’t readily available. They are able to filter a wide range of contaminants, including lead. The system consists of a sediment filter to trap particles like calcium carbonate and urea. It also filters silt, rust and sand that affect the taste and appearance of water.

A second sediment filter with smaller pores helps trap smaller impurities. A carbon filter traps organic chemicals, chlorine, heavy metals, asbestos and fluorides. A wide range of volatile organic compounds including many pesticides and herbicides are also removed. A reverse osmosis filter is made up of a semi permeable membrane. The membrane is a thin film composite. The microscopic pores in the membrane allow only pure water to pass through. Crossflow allows the membrane to clean itself. As the fluid passes through the membrane some of it continues downstream, sweeping the contaminants away from the membrane.

Portable reverse osmosis units are gravity powered and need neither a pump nor electricity. The water is pushed through the filters due to the pressure of gravity. As reverse osmosis systems are more sophisticated than other types of filters, they are significantly more expensive. Another drawback to using them is that at least two gallons of tap water is wasted for every useable gallon that is filtered. Reverse osmosis systems are either fitted to a single tap or plumbed into the main water inlet pipe, delivering filtered water throughout the house. Reverse osmosis filters are also used by people living in rural areas who do not have access to clean water. They are also used by travelers on long trips to countries where the local water supply is polluted or substandard. In developing nations, where people die because of drinking bacteria-infested or contaminated water, reverse osmosis water filters can help save lives.

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Note on Reverse Osmosis System

Reverse osmosis is a process that finds application in the purification of water. Reverse osmosis systems consist of a series of tubes containing stacks of spiral wound membranes. These tubes are mounted on high-pressure containers. The membrane stack consists of two very long semi permeable membranes with a mesh in between, sealed along the sides. This is wound up in a spiral tube with another mesh to separate the outside of the stack. The spiral winding provides a very large surface area for transfer. Between each membrane layer is a mesh separator that allows pure water to flow without obstructions. Water is forced through one end of the spiral cylinder and out through the other end. The resulting pressure forces the water through the membrane and collects in the space between the membranes. Pure water flows around the spiral and is collected in the center of the tube.

A typical reverse osmosis system consists of a holding tank with level controls that feeds the reverse osmosis pump. It also contains a reverse osmosis water storage tank with level controls and duplex pumps for water pressurization. High-pressure gauges are fitted on the reverse osmosis output pump and the concentrate pump. Pressure switches are fitted on the reverse osmosis feed and flow monitors on the concentrate, permeate and recycle stream. The cleaning cycle is automated in larger systems with automatic valves. Pretreatment is required for all systems which are designed to eliminate suspended solids, water hardness, chlorine and other oxidizers. Deposits of calcium and magnesium can plug the membrane. Chemicals or water softeners are added to the water to keep the solids in suspension. A water softener is used to remove the hard ions and replace them with sodium.

To continually perform well, reverse osmosis systems require regular maintenance and replacement of various components. Pre-filters and post-filters need to be replaced on a regular basis. The length of time between changing pre-filters will depend on the water quality, especially the concentration of solids. The contaminant concentration, membrane rejection percentages and efficiency of activated carbon removal, determine when post-filters should be replaced.

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