content top

Unknown Facts About Reverse Osmosis

You may or may not be aware of it, but reverse osmosis systems are not as uncommon and complicated as you think. Any mechanism that makes use of external pressure and a semi-permeable membrane to segregate substances having diverse concentrations are broadly categorized as reverse osmosis (RO) systems. If you want to know what it does and whether it will be any good for home use and keeping an aquarium, here is some information that will help: Osmosis vs. reverse osmosis, Understanding reverse osmosis systems is so much easier if you know what osmosis is. On the one hand, osmosis relies only on osmotic pressure to keep substances of different concentrations apart, with the semi-permeable membrane acting as a filter. The direction of water movement across the membrane is from low solute concentration to high concentration.

Reverse osmosis systems, on the other hand, work the opposite direction, which is from high to low solute concentration. The semi-permeable membrane then keeps the solutes on one side, allowing the purer solvent to pass through. Another distinct characteristic of these systems is the use of external force to move the solution across the membrane. Applications of reverse osmosis in households – The process of RO has its widespread use in desalination and renal replacement therapy. Countries with access to modern water utilities have potable water delivered to households with the help of water treatment processes, one of which is RO. For the rest of the world, however, there are home appliances designed to make tap water safe for cooking and drinking. Although there are various filtration and purifying systems available through direct selling, the market share of devices using this process is rapidly growing.

In addition to giving you clean drinking water, reverse osmosis also helps you achieve a healthy aquarium. Water straight from your plumbing systems has been treated with chemicals, and using it to fill your tank can be toxic to fish, plants, and live corals in it. For reef tanks (which are more sensitive to imbalances in water chemistry than standard fish tanks) RO aids in achieving stability. Aquarists find reverse osmosis devices useful in conditioning the insides of a reef tank to achieve a close similarity with natural marine environment. These devices also clear out contaminants that cause rapid algae growth. If you have an aquarium at home, you should know that excessive algae adversely affect the health of organisms inside your tank.

The pros and cons of using reverse osmosis systems – The main benefit of using these devices is that they don’t use chemicals to treat water, so they don’t change its taste, neither do they cause abrasion and sedimentation in plumbing and tanks. In addition, they help you save time and money as they don’t require much power and frequent clean-ups. On the downside, a good percentage of the water used by reverse osmosis devices is wasted and goes directly to your septic tank. Also, the notion that they are “purifiers” is only partly true, as they don’t have the capacity to disinfect water from bacteria. Aside from these, they may also remove helpful substances, like calcium and magnesium. RO devices are effective at filtration and less damaging to the environment. But with these benefits, there are also some setbacks that you have to consider before buying one.

Read More

All About Reverse Osmosis

In the United States, reverse osmosis water filters are some of the most common household filtrations systems available. Reverse osmosis water filters are an extremely effective form of filtration. They are used in military installations where clean water isn’t readily available. They are able to filter a wide range of contaminants, including lead. The system consists of a sediment filter to trap particles like calcium carbonate and urea. It also filters silt, rust and sand that affect the taste and appearance of water.

A second sediment filter with smaller pores helps trap smaller impurities. A carbon filter traps organic chemicals, chlorine, heavy metals, asbestos and fluorides. A wide range of volatile organic compounds including many pesticides and herbicides are also removed. A reverse osmosis filter is made up of a semi permeable membrane. The membrane is a thin film composite. The microscopic pores in the membrane allow only pure water to pass through. Crossflow allows the membrane to clean itself. As the fluid passes through the membrane some of it continues downstream, sweeping the contaminants away from the membrane.

Portable reverse osmosis units are gravity powered and need neither a pump nor electricity. The water is pushed through the filters due to the pressure of gravity. As reverse osmosis systems are more sophisticated than other types of filters, they are significantly more expensive. Another drawback to using them is that at least two gallons of tap water is wasted for every useable gallon that is filtered. Reverse osmosis systems are either fitted to a single tap or plumbed into the main water inlet pipe, delivering filtered water throughout the house. Reverse osmosis filters are also used by people living in rural areas who do not have access to clean water. They are also used by travelers on long trips to countries where the local water supply is polluted or substandard. In developing nations, where people die because of drinking bacteria-infested or contaminated water, reverse osmosis water filters can help save lives.

Read More

Note on Reverse Osmosis System

Reverse osmosis is a process that finds application in the purification of water. Reverse osmosis systems consist of a series of tubes containing stacks of spiral wound membranes. These tubes are mounted on high-pressure containers. The membrane stack consists of two very long semi permeable membranes with a mesh in between, sealed along the sides. This is wound up in a spiral tube with another mesh to separate the outside of the stack. The spiral winding provides a very large surface area for transfer. Between each membrane layer is a mesh separator that allows pure water to flow without obstructions. Water is forced through one end of the spiral cylinder and out through the other end. The resulting pressure forces the water through the membrane and collects in the space between the membranes. Pure water flows around the spiral and is collected in the center of the tube.

A typical reverse osmosis system consists of a holding tank with level controls that feeds the reverse osmosis pump. It also contains a reverse osmosis water storage tank with level controls and duplex pumps for water pressurization. High-pressure gauges are fitted on the reverse osmosis output pump and the concentrate pump. Pressure switches are fitted on the reverse osmosis feed and flow monitors on the concentrate, permeate and recycle stream. The cleaning cycle is automated in larger systems with automatic valves. Pretreatment is required for all systems which are designed to eliminate suspended solids, water hardness, chlorine and other oxidizers. Deposits of calcium and magnesium can plug the membrane. Chemicals or water softeners are added to the water to keep the solids in suspension. A water softener is used to remove the hard ions and replace them with sodium.

To continually perform well, reverse osmosis systems require regular maintenance and replacement of various components. Pre-filters and post-filters need to be replaced on a regular basis. The length of time between changing pre-filters will depend on the water quality, especially the concentration of solids. The contaminant concentration, membrane rejection percentages and efficiency of activated carbon removal, determine when post-filters should be replaced.

Read More
content top